December 15, 2023

About the Author: Xinyue

Xinyue, a renowned classical piano teacher at London Piano Institute, brings over a decade of experience, remarkable skills, and awards to inspire students.


The Baroque era, spanning roughly from the early 17th to the mid-18th century, was a period of artistic flourishing characterised by grandeur, drama, and emotional intensity. Among the many distinguishing features of Baroque art and music, ornamentation played a significant role in shaping the style and aesthetics of the time. Baroque ornamentation refers to the intricate and elaborate decorative elements added to musical compositions, creating a rich tapestry of sound that captivated audiences and showcased the virtuosity of performers. In this article, we will explore the essence of Baroque ornamentation, its various forms, its significance in Baroque music, and its lasting influence on subsequent musical styles.

An old piano with music sheet

I. Understanding Baroque Ornamentation

In the Baroque era, music was viewed as an art form that could elicit strong emotions and arouse the passions of listeners.

Composers and performers sought to create music that was expressive, ornate, and engaging, and ornamentation became a means of achieving these objectives.

Baroque ornamentation encompassed a wide range of embellishments, such as trills, mordents, turns, appoggiaturas, and many others.

These ornaments were not always notated in the musical scores, leaving room for performers to add their own improvisatory flair and personal touches.

Music sheet

II. Forms of Baroque Ornamentation

Trills: Trills are rapid alternations between two adjacent notes, usually starting on the main note and quickly moving to the upper auxiliary note and back. Trills added a sense of excitement and virtuosity to the music, often used to embellish cadences and important melodic passages.

Mordents: Mordents are rapid, single-note alternations between the main note and the immediately adjacent note above or below it. They added a playful and ornamented character to the music, injecting moments of joy and liveliness.

Turns: Turns, also known as gruppettos, are ornamental figures that involve a sequence of four notes – the main note, the note above, the main note again, and the note below. Turns contributed to the elegance and gracefulness of the music, often used at the end of phrases and in dance-like movements.

Appoggiaturas: Appoggiaturas are small grace notes that lean on the main note, stealing a portion of its time value. They served as expressive devices, infusing the music with a touch of melancholy or emotional depth.

Old baroque clavichord strings and keyboard

III. Significance of Baroque Ornamentation in Music

Baroque ornamentation played a crucial role in enriching the expressiveness and emotional impact of the music. It allowed performers to add their own interpretations and improvisations, making each performance unique and personalised.

Ornamentation served as a vehicle for musicians to display their technical prowess and artistry, showcasing their ability to embellish and decorate the musical lines with flair and creativity.

Furthermore, ornamentation was intimately connected to the aesthetics of the Baroque era. The elaborate embellishments reflected the prevailing artistic sensibilities of the time, which valued ornate and extravagant expression in all forms of art.

Ornamentation in music mirrored the decorative elements found in Baroque architecture, painting, and sculpture, creating a cohesive artistic language across different disciplines.

Piano on concert stage

IV. The Role of Improvisation in Ornamentation

Improvisation was an integral part of Baroque ornamentation. While some ornaments were written out by composers, many were left to the discretion of the performer.

This allowed musicians to infuse the music with their own interpretations and artistic choices, reflecting the improvisatory nature of Baroque performance practices.

Skilled performers of the time were expected to be adept at embellishing melodies, cadences, and repeating sections with inventive ornamentation.

Improvisatory abilities were highly valued, and musicians were often judged on their capacity to add tasteful and appropriate ornamentation to the music.

Old photo of a woman smiling sitting by the piano

V. Legacy and Influence of Baroque Ornamentation

The legacy of Baroque ornamentation extends far beyond the Baroque era. Its influence can be seen in subsequent musical periods, such as the Classical and Romantic periods, where ornamentation continued to be an essential aspect of musical expression.

In the Classical era, composers like Mozart and Beethoven still employed ornamentation in their compositions, although with a greater emphasis on precise notation and clarity of expression.

In the Romantic era, ornamentation became more individualised and expressive, reflecting the increased focus on emotional depth and subjective interpretation.

Moreover, the tradition of ornamentation in music has persisted in various forms of traditional and folk music.

In genres such as jazz and world music, musicians often embellish melodies with improvised ornaments, evoking the spirit of Baroque performance practices.


Baroque ornamentation remains a captivating and integral part of the musical legacy of the Baroque era. Through intricate embellishments like trills, mordents, turns, and appoggiaturas, performers added a sense of elegance, drama, and emotional intensity to the music.

Ornamentation was not merely a decorative element but an essential means of expression, allowing musicians to infuse the music with their own artistry and improvisational flair.

The legacy of Baroque ornamentation continues to resonate in the music of subsequent periods, and its enduring influence is a testament to its timeless beauty and expressive power.

As we explore the intricate world of Baroque ornamentation, we gain a deeper appreciation for the art of musical decoration and its profound impact on the evolution of Western music.

Looking to learn more about the art of Baroque ornamentation and music interpretation?

Why not start your baroque piano lessons with the London Piano Institute?

You can learn with us in person or online. We have outstanding teachers who will help you reach your musical goals!

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